Topic: Metal Extraction Process

Metals are extracted from their ore by following processes: 

  • Extraction using carbon (reduction) – Mostly metal that is present in ore as their oxide is heated with carbon to obtain the metal. The metal oxide loses oxygen (reduction) to give the metal and carbon gains oxygen and oxidized. Ex- Iron, Zinc, Lead, Tin

  • Extraction using electrolysis - IoNickelc substances can be broken down into the ions they are made from by electricity (electrolysis). Positively charged ions (Metals) move to the negative electrode (cathode). Negatively charged ions (oxide or chloride) move to the positive electrode (anode) and forms as gas. Ex- Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium, Aluminum

  • Gold, Platinum and Silver are found naturally

  • Copper is formed by roasting Copper ore in air.

  • TitaNickelum is extracted by reduction of metal halide. 

Topic: Alloys - Composition & Use

  • Amalgam – Mercury + Silver + Tin + Copper + Zinc – used in dental fillings

  • Alnico – Iron + Aluminum + Nickel + Copper –  used as magnets in loudspeakers and pickups in electric guitars

  • Babbit Metal (White Metal) – Copper + Tin +  Antimony + Lead – used as bearing metal

  • Billon – Copper + Silver – Coin Making

  • Brass -  Copper + Zinc – used in making utensils.

  • Bronze - Copper + Tin – Used in making coins, bell and utensils.

  • Cast Iron – Iron + Carbon –  Used in metal structures & cooking utensils

  • Constantan - Copper +  Nickel - Strain gauges and thermocouples.

  • Cupro-Nickel – Copper + Nickel – Used for making coins

  • Duralumin - Aluminum + Copper + Magnesium + Manganese - Airframe fabrication

  • Electrum – Gold + Silver – Coin

  • Gun Metal - Copper + Tin + Zinc  - In making guns, barrels, gears and bearings.

  • Invar – Iron + Nickel – Pendulum clocks and scientific instruments that avoid heat expansion

  • Magnox – Magnesium + Aluminum – Fuel rod containers for nuclear reactors

  • Monel – Nickel + Copper – Highly corrosion-resistant alloy used in airplane and ships

  • Solder - Lead + Tin - For soldering.

  • Magnalium - Aluminum + Magnesium - For frame of aeroplane

  • Stainless steel - Iron + Chromium + Nickel + C - For making utensils and surgical Cutlery.

  • German Silver - Copper + Zinc + Nickel - In making utensils

  • Rolled Gold - Copper + Aluminum - making cheap ornaments.

  • Rose metal - Bismuth + Lead + Tin - making automatic fuse.

  • Bell Metal - Copper + Tin - For casting bells and statues.

  • Superalloys – Nickel + Chromium - Protective, high-temperature materials

  • White gold (18 carat) – Gold + Palladium + Silver + Copper  - Jewelry

  • Wood’s Metal – Bismuth + Lead + Tin + Cadmium - Melting element in fire sprinkler systems.

  • Kanthal – Iron + Chromium + Aluminium – Used as heating element

  • Ashtadhatu – Gold + Silver + Copper + Lead + Zinc + Tin + Iron + Antimony/Mercury -  casting metallic idols in Jain and Hindu temples in India

Topic: Composition of known Materials

  • Glass –  SiO2 (Major) and CaO {During glass manufacturing, CaO acts  as flux and reduces the melting point     of SiO2)

  • Cement – Calcium Silicates (CaO.nSiO2)

  • Wood – Organics (Cellulose, Carbon based polymers) and Water

  • Ceramics (or Clay) – Alumino-silicates (mAl2O3.nSiO2)

  • Natural Rubber – Isoprene (Organic)

  • Plastics – C carbon. Extracted from crude oil

  • Leather – Water, Protein and Mineral Materials