Topic: Easy Technological Definitions

  • Artificial Intelligence: It is the simulation of human intelligence in machines (through programming) to think like humans and mimic their actions.

  • Machine Learning: It is the science (and arts) of programming computers so they can learn from data and improve from the experience of it. They use historical data as input to predict new output values.

  • Neural Networks:  This mimics the network of neurons that make up a human brain so that the machine will be able to learn things and make decisions in a very human-like manner.

  • Data Science:  It is the study of data i.e. it involves developing methods of recording, storing, and analyzing data to effectively extract useful information.

  • Big Data: It is about managing data that contains greater variety (many different data sources and formats), arriving in increasing volumes (lots of data)) and with more velocity (data arriving at high speed).

  • Robotic Process Automation: It is a technology that mimics the way humans interact with software to perform high-volume repeatable tasks. Ex - understand what’s on a screen, complete the keystrokes or, navigate systems

Topic: Blockchain and Cryptocurrency

  • Blockchain is a peer-to-peer network for use as a publicly distributed ledger.

  • It has a growing list of records, called blocks, that are linked together using cryptography

  • Blockchains are resistant to modification of their data because once recorded, the data in any given block cannot be altered retroactively without altering all subsequent blocks. Also, each peer has a copy of the record which prevents modification.

  • A cryptocurrency is a digital (or virtual)  currency that is secured by cryptography.

  • Digital currency is available only in digital or electronic form, and not in physical form

  • Cryptography is a method of protecting information and communications through the use of codes (encryption-decryption).

  • Well-known cryptocurrencies - Bitcoin (BTC), Ethereum (ETH), Dogecoin (DOGE) etc.

  • These cryptocurrencies are network-based decentralized systems and use blockchain technical architecture.

  • Decentralized means there is no single server maintaining the data. All members in the network keep the records which brings transparency and makes it tamper-proof.

Note – Bitcoin is not blockchain. Bitcoin was the first to demonstrate the use of blockchain technology. Satoshi  Nakamoto, the founder of Bitcoin, devised the first blockchain database.

Topic: 1G, 2G, 3G, 4G & 5G

  • 1G - 1G systems the audio was encoded as analog radio signals

  • 2G - 2G networks were entirely digital. 2G introduced data services for mobile, starting with SMS, picture messages, and MMS. 

  • 3G - 3G technology wireless voice telephony, mobile Internet access, fixed wireless Internet access, video calls, and mobile TV technologies.

  • 4G - 4G provides high speed mobile broadband Internet access. Long-Term Evolution (LTE) is a standard for wireless broadband communication.  It increases the capacity and speed using a different radio interface together with core network improvements.

  • 5G – It will have greater bandwidth, giving higher download speeds (in Gbit/s). Use of higher-frequency radio waves in addition to the low and medium band frequencies already used.


Topic: Internet

  • The Internet Protocol address (IP address) space and the Domain Name System (DNS), are directed by a maintainer organization, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN). ICANN is a non-profit organization.

  • The technical underpinning and standardization of the core protocols is an activity of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), a non-profit organization

  • Intercontinental connectivity is achieved through undersea or underocean cables.

  • ARPANET, which established the first host-to-host network connection on October 29, 1969 is the earliest instance of internet usage.

Topic: DNA Profiling

  • It is the process of determining an individual's DNA characteristics.

  • DNA is extracted from the nucleus of the cells

Note: Mature red blood cells and cornified cells in the skin, hair, and nails contain no nucleus. So, DNA profiling can’t be done on these cells.

  • Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis is widely used for DNA profiling.

  • “Genome India Project” (GIP)  - Initiated by Dept of Biotechnology (DBT) in 2020 to collect 10,000 genetic samples from citizens across India, to build a reference genome.

  • DNA barcoding–method of species identification using a short section of DNA from a specific gene.

  • Mitochondrial DNA are normally inherited exclusively from the mother. 

  • Biological parentage is determined using DNA profiling.

Do you knowWhen you see hair sample DNA analysis in movies and series, it is actually the root of hair that is tested for DNA. If the hair has no root material, it can't be tested for DNA.