Topic - Important boundaries

  • MacMohan Line - India & China

  • Radcliffe Line - India & Pakistan

  • Durand Line -  Pakistan & Afghanistan

  • 38th Parallel - North & South Korea

  • 49th Parallel – USA & Canada

  • Maginot Line - France & Germany

  • Oder Niesse Line -  Germany & Poland

  • Hindenburg Line  - Germany & Poland (old). The Germans retreated to this line in 1917 during World War I

  • Mason-Dixon Line - demarcation line separating four U.S. states, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Delaware, and West Virginia

 Topic - Straits and Channels 

  • Bab-el-Mandeb  - The Gulf of Aden and the Red Sea (Djibouti, Yemen, and Eritrea of the Somali Peninsula)

  • Ten Degree Channel - Andaman Sea and the Bay of Bengal (Car Nicobar Islands and Little Andaman)

  • Nine Degree Channel - Arabian Sea and Laccadive Sea (Separates islands of Minicoy (Laskswadweep, India) and Main Laccadive Island )

  • Eight Degree Channel -  Arabian Sea and Indian Ocean (Separates islands of Minicoy  and the Maldives)

  • Florida Strait - Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean (Cuba and the USA) 

  • English Channel - North Sea and Strait of Dover (Southern England and France)

  • Bering Strait - The Arctic Ocean and East Pacific ocean  (Asia from America) 

  • Strait of Gibraltar - The Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea (Spain and Morocco)

  • Korea Strait - The East China Sea and the Sea of Japan (Japan and South Korea) 

  • Formosa Strait - The South China Sea and the East China Sea (China and Taiwan)

  • Yucatan Strait - The Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea (Mexico and Cuba)

  • Cook Strait - The Tasman Sea and South Pacific Ocean (New Zealand)

  • Hormuz Strait - The Gulf of Oman and the Persian Gulf (Iran and Oman) 

  • Sunda Strait - Java Sea and the Indian Ocean (Java island of Indonesia with its Sumatra island) 

  • Strait of Malacca - The Pacific Ocean to the east with the Indian Ocean to the west (Malaysia and Sumatra)

  • Palk Strait- The Bay of Bengal in the northeast with the Palk Bay/Arabian Sea in the southwest (India and Sri Lanka) 

  • Bosphorus Strait - The Black Sea to Sea of Marmara (Divides Europe from Asia) 

  • Bass Strait - The Great Australian Bight and the Tasman Sea (Tasmania island and mainland Australia)

  • Davis Strait - The Baffin Bay and the Labrador Sea (between Greenland and Canada) 

  • Hudson Strait - Hudson Bay and the Labrador Sea (Baffin Island and Labrador peninsula) 

 Topic - Mountain ranges 

  • The Ural Mountains – Eurasia - Russia and Kazakhstan

  • The Appalachian Mountains – North America – USA, Canada & France  

  • The Andes – South America (Longest at 7,000 km) Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela

  • The Alps – Europe - Austria, France, Germany, Italy, Liechtenstein, Monaco, Slovenia and Switzerland

  • Drakensberg – Southern Africa - South Africa, Lesotho and Eswatini

  • The Aravalli Range – Asia – India

  • Cascade Range – North America - United States and Canada

  • The Transantarctic Mountains – Antarctica

  • The Atlas Mountains  - Western North Africa - Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia

  • The Himalayas – Asia – India, Nepal, Bhutan, China and Pakistan

  • The Rockies – North America - Canada and United States

  • The Great Dividing Range - Australia

  • The Altai Mountains -  Central and East Asia -  Russia, China, Mongolia, and Kazakhstan

  • The Western Ghats – Asia – India

  • Zagros Mountains – Middle East - Iran, Iraq, and Turkey

  • Caucasus Mountains – Eurasia - Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Russia and Turkey

  • Alaska Range – North America – USA

  • Transhimalaya – Asia – China (Tibet)

  • Tian Shan – Central Asia - China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan

  • Hengduan Mountains – Asia –China

  • Pamir Mountains – Asia - Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Afghanistan and China

  • Hindu Kush – South Central Asia - Afghanistan, Pakistan and Tajikistan

  • Karakoram – South Central Asia  - Afghanistan, China, India, Pakistan and Tajikistan

  • Kunlun Mountains – Asia -China

 Topic - Grasslands 

  • Steppe - Europe and North Asia

  • Taiga - Europe and Asia

  • Selvas - South America (Evergreen Forest)

  • Campos – Brazil

  • Llanos – Venezuela & Columbia

  • Downs -  Australia

  • Canterbury - New Zealand

  • Pustaz – Hungary

  • Savannah – Parts of Africa and Australia

  • Prairies – USA

  • Veld - South Africa

  • Pampas - Argentina

 Topic - Deserts

  • Sahara Desert – North-central Africa

  • Australian Deserts – Australia (Great Victoria Desert, Great Sandy Desert, Tanami Desert, Simpson Desert, Gibson Desert, Tirari desert)

  • Arabian Desert – Arabian Peninsula and Middle East

  • Gobi Desert  - Asia - China and Mongolia

  • Kalahari Desert  - Southern Africa - Botswana, Namibia, and South Africa

  • Thar Desert - South  Asia – India, Pakistan

  • Mojave Desert – North America - USA

  • Patagonian Desert –  South America - Argentina

  • Karakum Desert  - Central Asia - Turkmenistan

  • Sonoran Desert – North America -Mexico and the United States

  • Taklamakan Desert - Asia – China

  • Syrian Desert – Middle East - Iraq, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, and Syria

  • Ogaden Desert  - Eastern Africa - Ethiopia, Somalia

  • Namib Desert - Southern Africa - Namibia, South Africa and Angola

  • Sonoran Desert – North America - Mexico and the United States

  • Atacama Desert  - North America – Chile & Peru

  • Dasht-e Kavir  - Asia - Iran

 Topic - Lakes

  • Caspian Sea – Azerbaijan, Russia, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Iran (Largest lake in World & Asia, Saline Lake)

  • Great Lake system(HOMES – for memory)

    • Superior – Canada, U.S. (largest freshwater lake by area)

    • Huron – Canada, U.S. (Contains Manitoulin Island, the world's largest lake island)

    • Michigan - U.S. (Only great lake entirely in US, largest lake located entirely in one country)

    • Erie – Canada, U.S.

    • Ontario – Canada, U.S (smallest of these 5 lakes )

  • Victoria – Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania (Largest lake in Africa)

  • Malawi – Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania

  • Winnipeg - Canada

  • Vostok – Antarctica (Largest in Antarctica)

  • Titicaca – Bolivia, Peru (Highest navigable lake in the world and largest lake in South America)

  • Turkana – Kenya, Ethiopia (Saline, Largest permanent desert lake and the world's largest alkaline lake)

  • Urmia - Iran (Saline)

  • Ladoga – Russia (Largest lake in Europe)

  • Onega – Russia

  • Tanganyika – Burundi, Tanzania, Zambia, D.R.C. (Longest freshwater lake in the world)

  • Great Bear – Canada

  • Great Slave Lake – Canada (The deepest lake in North America)

  • Lake Eyre largest lake in Australia (saline)

  • Baikal – Russia (world’s oldest lake, coldest lake, deepest lake, largest lake by volume of freshwater and round 80% of its animal species are endemic)

  • Nettilling – Baffin Island, Canada (The largest lake on an island)

  • Lakes that are shrinking due to climatic changes and anthropogenic activities:

    • Aral Sea - Kazakhstan - Uzbekistan

    • Chad Lake - Chad, Cameroon, Niger, and Nigeria)

    • Urmia Lake – Iran

  • Ojos del Salado is the highest lake (Andes)

 Topic - Waterfalls

  • Niagara Falls

    • North America (spanning the border between the province of Ontario in Canada and the state of New York in the United States)

    • The Niagara Falls is made up of 3 waterfalls (the American Falls, the Bridal Falls and the Horseshoe Falls), combining to produce the highest flow rate of any waterfall on earth.

    • It is part of the Niagara River

  • Victoria Falls 

    • Zambia- Zimbabwe border

    • Located in Zambezi river

    • one of the world’s widest waterfalls

  • Angel Falls 

    • Venezuela, South America

    • It is part of the Churún River

    • It is the world's tallest uninterrupted waterfall

  • Iguazu Falls

    • Brazil – Argentina  border

    • Located in Iguazu river

    • one of the world’s widest waterfalls

  • Sutherland Falls 

    • New Zealand

    • Located in Lake Quill

  • Tugela Falls 

    • South Africa

    • Found in Drakensberg mountains

    • It is part of the Tugela River

    • It is the world’s 2nd tallest waterfall

  • Cataratas Tres Hermanas or Three Sister Falls 

    • Peru

    • Located in Cutivireni River

    • Consists of 3 stepped falls

  • Yosemite Falls 

    • California, US

    • Located in Yosemite Creek

  • Gotca Falls

    • Peru

    • It is part of the Cocahuayco River

  • Ban Gioc–Detian Falls

    • Vietnam –China Border

    • Located in Cutivireni River

  • Gullfoss

    • Iceland

    • Located in Hvita River

  • Plitviče Falls

    • Croatia

    • Located in Novakovića Lake

 Topic - Volcanic Peaks

  • Mount Fuji - Japan

  • Eyjafjallajökull – Iceland

  • Katla – Iceland

  • Mount Nyiragongo – Congo, Africa (Recent Eruption)

  • Mauna Loa – Hawaii, USA (largest)

  • Mount Etna - Italy

  • Kīlauea - Hawaii, USA

  • Barren Island – Andaman, India

  • Mount Erebus - Antartica

  • Whakaari – New Zealand (2019 eruption caused deaths)

  • Mount Vesuvius – Italy

  • Stromboli – Sicily, Italy

  • Mount Ruapehu -  New Zealand

  • Cotopaxi -  Ecuador

  • Isabela Island - Galapagos, Ecuador

  • Mount Mayon -  Philippines

  • Krakatoa -  Indonesia

  • Mount St Helens -  Washington State, USA

  • Mount Kilimanjaro – Tanzania

  • Popocatépetl  - Mexico

 Topic - Major sub-regions

  • Baltic states – Geo-political

    • It is a group on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea

    • Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.

  • Balkans countries– Geographic

    • Southeast Europe

    • Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Kosovo, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, and Slovenia

  • Scandinavia countries – Geographic

    • Northern Europe

    • Denmark, Norway, and Sweden

  • Nordic countries - Geographical and cultural region

    • Northern Europe and the North Atlantic

    • Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Iceland

  • Salvic countries  -  Ethno-linguistic group

    • They are native to Eurasia, stretching from Central, Southeastern and Eastern Europe

    • Slavs are the largest ethno-linguistic group in Europe

    • East Slavs (Belarusians, Russians, Rusyns, and Ukrainians);  West Slavs (chiefly Czechs, Kashubs, Poles, Slovaks, and Sorbs)  and  South Slavs (chiefly Bosniaks, Bulgarians, Croats, Macedonians, Montenegrins, Serbs and Slovenes).

 Topic - Cities and Rivers

  • Vienna (Austria) - Danube

  • Budapest (Hungary) - Danube

  • Belgrade (Serbia) – Danube

  • Kathmandu (Nepal) – Bagmati

  • Shanghai (China) – Huangpu

  • Hamburg (Germany) – Elbe

  • Bagdad (Iraq) – Tigris

  • Rome (Italy) – Tiber

  • Montreal (Canada) - Saint Lawrence

  • Karachi (Pakistan) – Indus

  • Cairo (Egypt) – Nile

  • Paris (France) – Seine

  • Dhaka (Bangladesh) - Buriganga

  • London (England) - Thames

  • Moscow (Russia) - Moskva

  • Washington DC (USA) - Potomac

  • Cologne (Germany) – Rhine

  • New York (USA) - Hudson

  • Lahore (Pakistan) - Ravi

  • New Orleans (USA) - Mississippi

  • Sydney (Australia) - Darling

 Topic - Rivers in Continents

  • Australia

    • Murray 

    • Darling

  • Asia   

    • Ganges  

    • Brahmaputra

    • Mekong 

    • Yangtze

    • Indus 

    • Huang He (Yellow)

    • Amur 

    • Irtysh

    • Ob 

    • Tigris

    • Euphrates 

    • Irrawaddy

    • Yenisei  

    • Lena

  • Africa      

    • Nile  

    • Niger

    • Zaire(Congo)  

    • Zambezi

    • Orange  

  • Europe  

    • Volga 

    • Rhine

    • Elbe 

    • Danube

    • Dnieper 

    • Loire       

  • North America

    • Mississippi  

    • Missouri

    • Yukon 

    • Rio Grande

    • St. Lawrence  

    • Arkansas

    • Colorado  

    • Columbia

    • Mackenzie 

  • South America 

    • Amazon  

    • Parana  

    • San Francisco  

    • Orinoco

    • Tocantins 

    • Purus

    • Madeira 

    • Rio Negro

  • Antarctica 

    • Onyx  (It is the longest 32 km) 

    • Alph

    • Rezovski Creek  (*though named river or creek, all are meltwater streams)

 Topic - Largest non-continental islands

  1. Greenland (main island) - Denmark 

  2. New Guinea - Indonesia and Papua New Guinea

  3. Borneo – Brunei, Indonesia, and  Malaysia

  4. Madagascar (main island) - Madagascar

  5. Baffin Island – Canada

  6. Sumatra - Indonesia

  7. Honshū – Japan

  8. Victoria Island – Canada

  9. Great Britain - United Kingdom (England Scotland and Wales)

  10. Ellesmere Island - Canada

 Topic - Meteor impact craters

  • Chicxulub crater (Mexico) – World 2nd largest impact crater (~160 km wide). Formed during the meteorite strike that led to the extinction of Dinosaurs.

  • Lonar Lake (India) – Impact crater in Maharashtra, India.

  • Pingualuit Crater(Canada) – It is a relatively young impact crater located in Quebec.    

  • Vredefort Crater (South Africa) – the world’s largest known impact structure.   

  • Sudbury Basin (Canada) – 3rd largest Impact crater in the world.

  • Popigai Crater (Russia) – It is in Siberia, Russia. It is linked with the Eocene-Oligocene extinction event.

  • Manicouagan Reservoir (Canada) –  One of the largest known impact craters in the world.

  • Barringer Crater(USA) – One of the well preserved, privately owned crater site.

  • Kaali Crater (Estonia) – The main crater lies with  8 smaller craters that were created due to the disintegration of meteorite very close to surface of earth.